# Rational Krylov Decompositions: Theory and Applications

Berljafa, Mario (2017) Rational Krylov Decompositions: Theory and Applications. Doctoral thesis, The University of Manchester.

## Abstract

Numerical methods based on rational Krylov spaces have become an indispensable tool of scientific computing. In this thesis we study rational Krylov spaces by considering rational Krylov decompositions; matrix relations which, under certain conditions, are associated with these spaces. We investigate the algebraic properties of such decompositions and present an implicit Q theorem for rational Krylov spaces. We derive standard and harmonic Ritz extraction strategies for approximating the eigenpairs of a matrix and for approximating the action of a matrix function onto a vector. While these topics have been considered previously, our approach does not require the last pole to be infinite, which makes the extraction procedure computationally more efficient. Typically, the computationally most expensive component of the rational Arnoldi algorithm for computing a rational Krylov basis is the solution of a large linear system of equations at each iteration. We explore the option of solving several linear systems simultaneously, thus constructing the rational Krylov basis in parallel. If this is not done carefully, the basis being orthogonalized may become poorly conditioned, leading to numerical instabilities in the orthogonalization process. We introduce the new concept of continuation pairs which gives rise to a near-optimal parallelization strategy that allows to control the growth of the condition number of this nonorthogonal basis. As a consequence we obtain a more accurate and reliable parallel rational Arnoldi algorithm. The computational benefits are illustrated using our high performance C++ implementation. We develop an iterative algorithm for solving nonlinear rational least squares problems. The difficulty is in finding the poles of a rational function. For this purpose, at each iteration a rational Krylov decomposition is constructed and a modified linear problem is solved in order to relocate the poles to new ones. Our numerical results indicate that the algorithm, called RKFIT, is well suited for model order reduction of linear time invariant dynamical systems and for optimisation problems related to exponential integration. Furthermore, we derive a strategy for the degree reduction of the approximant obtained by RKFIT. The rational function obtained by RKFIT is represented with the aid of a scalar rational Krylov decomposition and an additional coefficient vector. A function represented in this form is called an RKFUN. We develop efficient methods for the evaluation, pole and root finding, and for performing basic arithmetic operations with RKFUNs. Lastly, we discuss RKToolbox, a rational Krylov toolbox for MATLAB, which implements all our algorithms and is freely available from http://rktoolbox.org. RKToolbox also features an extensive guide and a growing number of examples. In particular, most of our numerical experiments are easily reproducible by downloading the toolbox and running the corresponding example files in MATLAB.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral) MSC 2010, the AMS's Mathematics Subject Classification > 15 Linear and multilinear algebra; matrix theoryMSC 2010, the AMS's Mathematics Subject Classification > 65 Numerical analysis Mr Mario Berljafa 16 Feb 2017 20 Oct 2017 14:13 http://eprints.maths.manchester.ac.uk/id/eprint/2529